Sunday, January 29, 2012

The Wall Street Journal comes down hard on the "rotten state of India's media"

Ajit Mohan, writing on the WSJ website, couldn't have been more critical of the Indian media. Both print and television journalism get it in the neck. Here's a sampler:

Fragments of news, a significant portion lazily strung together from press agency clippings, are what a careful newspaper reader can sift out between a series of full-page advertisements peddling products, and images of women (usually of non-Indian origin) in different states of undress (in their defense, savvy editors must be acutely aware now that many of their readers prefer to get their titillation from their English-language newspapers than from other sources.) If there is any original reporting at all, it is always a bit unclear if a government agency or a private company has sponsored the report, or whether it is just another unpaid favor that has been granted by the editor. 

Frighteningly, the situation is even worse on television channels. Most news channels just do not do reporting anymore. What counts for reporting is usually a small snippet of a roving ‘journalist’ talking to a few randomly chosen individuals on the streets of Delhi and Mumbai for their take on the big controversy of the day. This then segues to what has become the preferred format of all channels: a panel of six to eight ‘experts’, usually spokesmen of major political parties mixed with out-of-work politicians, newspaper and magazine editors, and the day’s representation from the roving celebrity class of lobbyist-PR agent-commentators (whose reason to be on the panel is never quite clear), ranting at each other while struggling to have their screeching voices heard above the incessant screaming of the anchor. All this while the viewer struggles to keep up with the multiple, disjointed layers of scrolling headlines perennially sliding on the screen below the screamers.

This is a severe indictment surely. It's time to do some soul-searching, perhaps. What do our journalists have to say?

Commitscion Faye D'Souza (Class of 2004), who's an assistant editor with ET Now in Mumbai, offers a lucid comment:

I see the author’s opinion as an extension of the angst felt by several of the upper middle class ‘Thinking Indians’ we meet at dinner parties. It’s true, news has been converted into easy-to-consume, quick-churn packets of "fast food", in some cases compromising investigation and thorough fact-checking in the process.

But it is also true that the very people at dinner parties who complain the loudest are also the consumers of this information. When was the last time any of them read a long-format journalism magazine like Tehelka that puts out well-researched analysis that often runs into several pages? Aren’t we all watching the television shows we claim to detest so vehemently?

When you watch a show you lend eyeballs, which translates to TRPs, and strong TRPs encourage channels to continue putting out these shows because you as a customer seem to want them.

News, today, is a business. Newspapers and channels need to pay salaries and cover overheads as well. I think we should ask ourselves why we watch what we watch. And would we pay good money to watch a toned down, mellow, balanced news show? (Remember here that none of the money you pay your cable or DTH operator reaches the producer of the content.)

Maybe a not-for-profit news organisation is the answer. It would give Indian consumers an opportunity to sample objective journalism and decide for themselves what they prefer.

But for the sake of argument, let’s use Doordarshan as an example of what happens to content when it does not face the pressure of the P&L [profit and loss] statement. Do you think the news on DD is wholesome journalism? I bet you are unable to answer that question because you haven’t watched news on DD lately?

 It really is a chicken and egg situation. Consumers watch and read what’s handed to them because they claim they do not have a choice; content producers continue to churn out the same quality because they believe that is what consumers want.

I also would like to point out that this blog has generalised the lack of conscience across the media. I beg to differ on the stand that we are all the same.

Another Commitscion, Ayushman Baruah (Class of 2008), who is the principal correspondent of InformationWeek in Bangalore, also weighs in:

I agree that Indian media, both print and electronic — especially electronic media rely on "superficial journalism" and there is no in-depth reporting. There is certainly an absence of analysis.

Some of it is perhaps because even in journalism schools we are taught how to report and never to analyse. The analysis in print is limited to the edit columns and in news channels, if at all, is limited to a brief "editor's take". I have seen this difference even in business reporting between InformationWeek India and our US edition. While we report, they analyse.

But there is, as well, some ambiguity in my mind about the extent to which reporters should analyse, and most important, how much of that analysis is fit to print.

Do television and print journalists have differing views? Your feedback is welcome.

Friday, January 6, 2012

What it means to be an entertainment television production professional

Commits alumna AFREEN RAHMAN (Class of 2010), who is an assistant producer with Zoom in Mumbai, gives us some interesting insights into the entertainment television industry:

What was I thinking when I took this job?!

My parents were puzzled, friends laughed, and the best part was that even I was confused. Why did I want to be part of the entertainment media industry? Because I wanted to be in Bollywood? No, if you really want to know, I wanted to be Kareena Kapoor. Well, that’s my subconscious mind talking but I was always curious to know what lies behind this glitzy world called Bollywood.

While I was an avid reader of Filmfare and Stardust, it was Ramesh Sir and Sai Sir at Commits who made me read novels (Salman Rushdie… how can I ever forget him?) and then write reviews. I would run, hide, do everything to avoid what I thought of as a tedious task… but I would still somehow submit the article.

And now I am writing yet another.


Entertainment is a term that has been used and abused many a time in this industry. An industry where reality shows claim to be unscripted and soaps and serials have become entirely predictable. What is entertainment then? The dictionary would say “agreeable occupation for the mind”, but a senior producer of an entertainment channel would put it as “art meets science and creativity meets news”.

Well, working for a television channel dedicated to Bollywood did give me thrills initially but, as time went by, I realised it’s not easy to create the drama, to create the hype, and to make celebrities look larger than life, especially when it came to celebs who are completely different from the perceptions people have of them. Like chalk and cheese, if I may say so. Don’t believe me? Here’s choreographer Sandip Soparrkar on Katrina Kaif: “She is a cold fish how can she be any man’s desire?” Meanwhile ad guru Prahlad Kakkar doesn’t even want to acknowledge the presence of Akshay Kumar on the Bollywood circuit. This is the reality off camera.


Being designated a producer might seem all fancy-shmancy but the daily real-life drama that I am part of at work makes for more absorbing entertainment than any soap or serial.

As for deadline pressures, we often hear people cribbing about meeting deadlines; well, I have learnt deliver before deadline. That is expected of us today.

A day in the life of a professional in my industry would ideally begin at 9:30 a.m.; mine begins at 11 a.m. Why? Let me just say it’s a time-management issue. You see, I need to work closely with my scriptwriter who racks her brains to write lines in Hindi (which is not my forte). But she needs constant briefing because she tends to get carried away and writes at great length, which ultimately needs heavy editing keeping the episode duration in mind! (There have been times when, while speaking to her on the phone, I have dozed off.)  Then there’s my forever-demanding editor who feels there is never enough footage to edit a link. So even if I leave office at 1 a.m., I am on call till 4 a.m.

The next day, even as I board the train and squeeze myself into a seat I am coordinating with the voiceover artist and my post-production head, AND updating my senior because she wakes up after a good night’s sleep and wants to know if her posterior is going to be on fire or not! To top it all, if the updates don’t go out on time, 8-1-1 (my extension) does not stop ringing. Any wonder why I sometimes feel like dialling 9-1-1?

Television shows are mostly shoot-based or edit-based. Therefore research on your subject is a must, else audience and stars alike feel cheated and you end up like a popular newspaper supplement that showers rumours and unverified gossip on its readers daily. Zoom editor-in-chief Omar Qureshi, who is a veteran film journalist and ex-editor of Stardust, has a personal rapport with most of B-Town’s A-listers, but he would still face the heat if something that was concocted appeared on the channel. He knows, however, that if his background research is foolproof, nothing can deter him from stating the truth.

Now my research is all about news… Bollywood news! It helps to be updated and be ahead of time. In Bollywood we have a mix of everything not just gossip and glamour so entertainment reporting is not really that different from crime reporting or political reporting, which, by the way, makes headlines every day. Here you dig deeper because surely the life of every celebrity is worth talking about!


I often hear people saying, “Be passionate about your work”, “Content is king”, “Be available round the clock”. And then I have friends saying (not asking, just saying), “Are you saving lives?” No, I don’t have any clear answers yet to such questions, but, yes, even if we are passionate about work and our content has given us TRPs (what every channel thrives on), the way I see it is that we are fighting with rivals and saving the channel’s reputation. Here is an incident that underlines my viewpoint:

I had recently produced an episode titled “Bindass Celebs of Bollywood”, a countdown show. One week after it first went on air, when the repeats were on during prime time on a Saturday, somebody somewhere tuned into Zoom and watched the episode. The following day, a Sunday, I received a call and I was asked to report to work by 10 a.m. for a meeting with the programming head, the CEO, and my senior producer. Whoa! I had a lunch plan! Which I cancelled and then crawled to work not knowing what had happened.

Programming team meetings are usually fun; we spend a lot of time sometimes discussing the quirks of some of our stars (we get many interesting details from our reporters). But that day the room had a different air. As I sat down mentally prepared to tune out, I was asked the first question: Why did I do an episode called “Bindass Celebs of Bollywood”? Well, this can’t be bad, I thought. As I sat up straight to reveal the inside story and cover myself in glory, the CEO pounced on me: How dare I use the word “Bindass”. I was taken aback. I had no idea what I had done wrong.

Until it struck me suddenly that UTV Bindass is our rival channel. Oh boy!

I won’t go into details of what followed, but I surely wanted to quit then and there. Just as this thought was crystallising in my mind, Monisha Singh, the programming head, broke the silence that was taking up precious Sunday time: “Entertainment in television is very different from movies. One has to be aware that along with creativity (read creating news) comes strategic planning. Budgets, business angle of the channel, changing tastes of the audience, relationship with the stars it all adds up to create the channel’s offering.” I think all she could have said was “Be careful next time” instead of this long-winded elucidation. :-)

In our industry, along with the actors, different media houses have learned to co-exist. One cannot survive without the other and, hence, both try to maintain a balance in this need-based “relationship”. Even as one gathers information for the various shows, one must never forget that every minute of every show is important. Therefore, a fervent desire to tap the pulse of the channel’s target audience should be in the DNA of every individual who is part of the 24x7 media circuit. To be sensitive and be sensible while narrating a story is as important as tracking the competition closely and outdoing them in the very same race. This part of our job may not be written down in the appointment letter but that is what decides our growth in any media organisation.

Speaking of target audiences, here’s reality TV producer Priyanka Kochhar on show formats that work and show formats that don’t: “Beauty and the Geek might have been popular in America but the same show failed in India because it couldn’t cater to an audience that wants masala and gossip in reality shows. Bigg Boss, on the other hand, rakes in higher revenues than Big Brother because it stimulates the audience’s mind with some much-needed juice.”

Now you know why, when deciding the format or the flow of a production-based show, one has to be very clear whose addiction one is feeding. If the TG, or target group, is “15 to 24”, it’s not the metro youngsters that we are cashing in on. It’s those kids in Kanpur, Noida, Nagpur, and Lucknow who come into the picture. Would they prefer Shah Rukh over Shahid, or Hrithik over Ranbir…ohhh! It’s a never-ending debate. Simi Chandoke, editor-in-chief of Lifestyle and Society at Times Television Network justifies this stance: “It’s only your TG that matters; it’s better to be honest with your viewers and readers than with the celebrity you interview.”

So, as I come to the end of my day and this article, I would say that no matter how difficult it is to cope with the incessant demands made on your time, you have to realise that your life in entertainment television is very different from that of your friends in other sections of the television industry. I believe they have a life, while we, apparently, slave to make space for the living. Competition is tough, there is always someone waiting outside the door to take your chair and maybe do the same work even better. And the pay sucks at my level!


Then why do I still do what I do?

Because when I go off to sleep for the few hours I can manage to, I have a smile on my face, a smile which comes from knowing that the day was well-spent! Even if I am not saving lives, thousands of Bollywood lovers actually look forward to MY show. Even if I am not Kareena Kapoor, I am a celebrity in my own little world no other job gives you that kind of status. In my own way, I am changing the lives of dreamy-eyed youngsters in this country and that is no small achievement and no small responsibility.

And, for the Parthian shot, here are a few things I have learnt from experience: If you want to enjoy what you do be different, wear a T-shirt to a formal meeting, chew gum (and people’s brains), laugh aloud and gossip in whispers, indulge in small talk, call in sick when the Oscars are on, sleep with your eyes wide open in meetings, and never ever cheat where work is concerned.

Sunday, January 1, 2012

What it means to be a social media marketing professional

Commits alumna BANIAIKYNMAW LYDIA SHANPRU (Class of 2007) works with Mindshare, a subsidiary of Group M, in Bangalore. Here she tells us what social media, increasingly being used as a marketing tool, is all about:

“Social media” is a phrase that is bandied about quite frequently these days. But what exactly is social media? And why has it become an important marketing tool?

Social media is all about the five C’s: Communication, Community, Connection, Creation, Convergence.

What are the elements that are considered as social media?

Networks: For social and professional networking.

Blogs: Individuals write about their views and opinions on various personal, social, and marketing issues they face; posts are updated frequently.

Forums: Users post queries and responses about brands and products

Almost all brands concentrate on acquiring fans in the case of Facebook or followers on Twitter. Contests and contents are the main drivers for building a community.

In addition, brands also acquire fans and followers through paid media which comprises social advertising on Facebook and promoted tweets/brands on Twitter.

How are these platforms utilised?

A. The brand’s fans/followers can be kept informed about developments concerning the brand. This is done through status updates on the Facebook Fan Page, Twitter Channel, etc.

B. The brand engages with fans/followers when their queries/comments are replied to on a regular basis. If they post queries/comments about the brand, it is best to respond immediately to prevent negative comments about the brand and to avoid creating a bad impression about the brand.

C. Brand advocates, who speak positively about the brand to their peers, can be created.

Point to note: When speaking with its fans/followers, the brand should converse with them in a personal tone and avoid using difficult marketing terms as far as possible.


The rules of social media are Listen, Learn, and Leverage.

Listen: As a social media marketer one should be thorough with ORM (Online Relationship Management), that is, tracking and keeping up-to-date on the brand sentiments whether they are positive, neutral, or negative conversations.

Learn: Identify and analyse conversation trends for appropriate content response.

Leverage: Engage with the users by persuading them to participate in the brand conversation and in contests. You can also give them exclusive access to content to make them your brand advocates.

And finally, something to remember:

1. Just as we pay for our ads in print and on television, social media strategy doesn’t come free of cost.

2. Knowing how to post a status update on Facebook or how to tweet does not qualify one to be a social media specialist.

3. Most importantly, brands have to listen to their consumers and become their friends and not marketing advisors.
  • UPDATE (July 25, 2013): Carrie Kerpen, the CEO of a social media agency, explains why she believes strongly that there are key areas within social media upon which you may build a career. Read the article she contributed to Forbes here: "Is Social Media a Career?"

What it takes to be a media planner

Commits alumnus SUMIT SONAL (Class of 2011) has been working as a media planner with OMD Worldwide in Bangalore since September 2010. Here he gives us an insight into media planning as a profession:

Life as a media planner is hectic say goodbye to your 9-to-6 routine because it really doesn't exist and you have to be very, very patient while working on huge media plans that sometimes exceed Rs.14 cr for just a single quarter.

Sometimes you will have to make amendments to a single plan at least four or five times (if you're lucky!) before it gets approved. Presentations for global and regional teams, in the case of international clients like Intel, will take up most of your time.

Media planning has changed with time. Today's client will ask questions on each rupee spent. More and more channels are being added to the list every day, and it is the same with publications and websites. You should be updated all the time; only then will you be able to create plans that will deliver the goods for your client. To do this, you will have to stay in constant touch with your vendors and also READ! Afaqs and Campaign India are two websites that give you a good insight into what’s happening in the industry and you must make it a point to visit them regularly.

BRAND VISIBILITY: Staying in touch with your vendors will keep you up to date on upcoming properties. For example, you must have seen the promos for Avatar on Star Movies and Star Plus. The network approached us to be the associate sponsor because by then Reliance had already been finalised as the main sponsor. Being associate sponsor or sponsor ensures maximum visibility for your brand, considering the brand will be present everywhere the property is being promoted: promo runs, out-of-home media, Facebook, and paid search ads.

Avatar, a premium property, is very expensive to buy. Associate sponsorship can cost you anywhere between Rs.50 lakh and Rs.60 lakh (how far the cost can be brought down depends completely on the buying team).

We took Avatar, and it was declared as one of our big, good buys of the year as the property delivered tremendously well for both English and Hindi audiences.

To conclude, you need to be very patient and value relationships with colleagues, vendors, in fact anyone you meet if you want to become a good media planner. The media is a close-knit industry, so be sure to leave the person you meet with the right image.

One last point: It’s not important to be good at maths; I never was. You can still do well in this business. Also, be computer-savvy because it really helps!

What it means to be a TV news producer-2

Commits alumna SHALINI SEN (Class of 2007) is a senior assistant producer with ET Now in Mumbai. Here she talks about three major aspects of television news production: content management, time management, and people management.

There is a single word that can describe what a TV news show producer does: Everything! I realise that may sound scary, but the truth is if you are a producer, the show is your baby. If the end product looks and sounds good you'll feel like a proud mother. And if it does not, you're the one who will get all the flak for it.

As a producer, you need to deal with three major aspects: content management, time management, and people management.

The producer decides what news makes it on to the show and what doesn't. When you have 22 to 25 minutes to fill and a barrage of information coming your way, your news sense has to kick in and be able to filter out what can be done away with or pushed to a later slot. On a particularly news-heavy day, you will be trying to squeeze in as much information on the show as possible. And then there are days you will be scrambling for every tiny piece of news you get to fill up your show. Both extremes can be quite daunting. And while doing this you also have to handle your reporters out on the field. Dropping a story that a reporter worked hard for is not going to earn you any brownie points. So PR skills are a must if you don’t want to bruise anyone's ego.

ADRENALINE RUSH: One thing that a live news producer deals with every day is breaking news. It sends your perfectly planned show into a complete tizzy, but it's also a huge adrenaline rush. The whole production team has to work together like a well-oiled machine to handle it. From putting the news out on the ticker, getting your reporter ready to come on air, informing your anchor about the development, and how it changes your show – and putting it all on air within a matter of seconds, preferably before the other channels get it out. It requires calm nerves, above-par coordination skills, and a firm grip on the situation. Any anxiety you show will reflect on your anchor and make the whole channel seem unreliable. And we certainly cannot have that.

That said, in such a situation a few errors are bound to be made and the trick is to correct them as quickly as possible. There isn't always time to double-check every fact, every spelling boo-boo, and every grammatical error. But a keen and alert producer catches the error before the viewer does.

With pre-programmed shows, however, it is the exact opposite. The pace is different and the expectations are different as well. Since the show is not live, there is no sense of urgency involved. It involves a lot of planning and pre-production to get every single detail right and there is absolutely no room for errors.

So there are many hats a producer has to wear: scriptwriter, fact checker, copy editor and team leader.

READING MAKES ALL THE DIFFERENCE: The only way to be all of that is to read. Read, read, read, read! Newspapers, books, magazines, articles on the internet, pretty much anything you can get your hands on. It almost always leads to interesting conversations and subsequently interesting story ideas.

Every person joining the TV news industry aspires to be Barkha Dutt, covering wars and political upheavals and whatnot. While it's a great aspiration, it involves a tremendous amount of hard work. Don't be disillusioned when all you do in the beginning is log tapes and ingest footage. However mundane it may be, it all adds up to a significant learning curve. It builds your TV news sense and helps you think visually when you go on to write your stories.

It's not an easy job, but ask the editor-in-chief of any news channel and they will tell you: It is the desk and the producers that ultimately run the channel.

  • Back in March 2008, Shalini Sen was preparing to head off to Mumbai to join UTV and she wrote then that she was just as scared as she was nine months previously when she joined Reuters in Bangalore. “But this time,” she wrote, “I know for a fact that the fear isn't of business journalism and number-crunching and finance jargon.” And then she wrote about how financial journalism is essentially no different from other forms of journalism:
I guess no one really joins the field of journalism with business news as their first choice. It's always crime or political or sports news that everyone wants to cover and I was no different. For a student of Literature, I was completely out of touch with Maths and accounting principles. But when I got the job at Reuters to cover financial news I knew the only way I could have fun at work was when I learnt to have fun with numbers. And if I could do it, I'm sure anyone can.
What I learnt was it isn't so much the numbers, but it is how you interpret them that matters. No number on its own has any meaning. It is always relative to other numbers. And a very handy website helped me understand financial jargon better. (The site is for equities news in the U.S. but most of it holds true for business anywhere in the world.)

And as in every other branch of journalism, staying abreast with everyday news is essential.
Financial journalism is essentially no different from other forms of journalism: the what, where, who, how, when, and why formula still applies. Facts and figures have to be checked and re-checked and like always the deadline is sacrosanct. If we can just get our heads around the fact that there are just a few more numbers involved, it really is not difficult at all.
Also, with so many business stories on television and in the newspapers every day, it has become quite easy to understand financial news. I guess all it takes is a little interest and a willing mind. 

  • Want to know how to have a successful internship at a TV news channel? Read this post.

What it means to be a copywriter at a radio station

Commits alumna RANJINI N. (Class of 2010) worked as a copywriter with Adverto Advertising before moving to Radio Mirchi in Bangalore, again as a copywriter. So what does a copywriter do at a radio station? Read on… 

When I switched jobs and moved from an advertising agency to a radio station, I was pretty excited about getting an opportunity to experiment with a new medium. Writing for print gave a kind of permanence to your creative you can see it as long as it exists. Radio is all about frequency and immediacy instant gratification when you listen to your creation on air the very next day is what it is all about.

At Radio Mirchi, I handle sales copywriting for our Bangalore and Mangalore stations. I found that the role of a copywriter at a radio station is pretty much the same as in a creative agency. The only difference being that here you will think of different ways of using the medium of radio, radio, and more of radio. Ideation for a brand, the communication based on its positioning, activities to plan on air and on ground, meeting clients, etc., are all part of the role. A great idea attracts clients whether it originates from an agency or a radio station. So it really doesn’t matter where you belong as long as you come up with ideas that click.


The radio commercial or FCT (Free Commercial Time) is the most common advertising option for brands. In addition, clients increasingly ask for innovative ways of advertising. It may be in the form of clever brand placements within radio programmes or inventive methods of communication. An example I can think of from the visual medium would be strategic brand placements in movies or TV shows. Since the programming format varies from one radio station to another, a copywriter needs to be aware of both format and content to be able to offer customised solutions to clients.

Some potential clients do not appear to believe in the effectiveness of radio advertising. Some are unaware of any innovation apart from having the RJs mention the brand in their jock talk. In such cases, a copywriter’s creative, or concept, for brand communication has the power to change the client’s perception. We have managed to crack deals and convince clients who were either averse to radio as a medium or had no idea how to use the medium effectively. It must be mentioned here that copywriters not only write scripts for creative briefs handed to them by the sales team but also work closely with them for their sales pitches.

In a casual context, we do mix languages while speaking. Since radio communicates with the audience one-on-one, the language is conversational. Whether it’s advertising or programme content, the language used is always a mix of the local language and English: Kanglish, Hinglish, etc.

When you work for a local radio station, strong local connect is a huge plus. Proficiency in multiple languages helps abundantly. The copywriter benefits from a knowledge of local lingo, slang, and nuances. This helps particularly to give radio spots a local flavour when they are translated to the local language. And, more importantly, enables one to avoid any faux pas. There are examples of scripts that have been translated word for word (evidently with the help of Google Translator or some similar software) that give us a good laugh! It’s copywriters who are responsible for preventing such blunders.

When radio stations move to the Phase III auction of FM licences, smaller towns and cities will see the opening of FM radio stations. It will be even more crucial then to be aware of the culture, the city, and the sentiments of the audience for whom we write.


Airtel made the whole country sing “Har ek friend zaroori hota hai” and reminded you of your long-lost friend from school. A nationwide campaign such as this announces the positioning of the brand.
Now how do you reach that “zaroori friend”? With a radio commercial for “30 paise per minute plan” that’s available next door.

The point is, radio is seen as an excellent medium for tactical campaigns to create awareness for a brand and lead customers to the point of purchase. And that’s when, as a copywriter, your awareness of not only the overall brand positioning and communication tone but also of the city, a store launch, activities, etc., come into play.

Deadlines are sacrosanct. Time is money and radio is one medium where you get to experience it every day. Unlike television advertisements, radio commercials can be produced quickly with fewer logistical issues. Some clients take last-minute decisions to include radio in their media plan. And that cascades down to the copywriter as a tight deadline to produce the commercials.

Different kinds of brands invest in advertising during festivals, special days, and other occasions. By the very nature of the tactical campaigns, there is absolutely no room for delays, compromise on deadlines, or on the quality of the creative. Radio is the place where you can enjoy writing for a range of categories: from selling noodles to jewellery to villas to marathon runs to denims to insurance policies to mobile phones to hotels!

So, when the rest of the world is celebrating festivals, holidaying, and generally relaxing, radio stations will be busy putting together entertaining programmes, producing creatives, and executing advertising plans for their clients.

All said and done, the excitement of writing something new, creating small stories makes every day lively and interesting.
  • EXTERNAL READING: If you’ve ever dreamt about being a radio star, then why not make it happen? Learn how here: Start your own radio station.